1996 Agreement Between India And China

In this context, the Foreign Minister`s statement that firearms are not used as a long-standing practice is at the bottom of the day, given that several agreements signed over time reinforce this practice of restraint. November 29, 1996 Web Posted at: 3:30 p.m. EST (2030 GMT) Apart from the 1996 agreement, Dr. Jaishankar also refers to the 2005 agreement. On the issue of the India-China border, the two countries reaffirmed the need to maintain peace at the borders and to continue the implementation of the agreements signed above, with border issues at the point of final solution. The term „LAC“ was legally recognized in the Salino-Indian agreements signed in 1993 and 1996. The 1996 agreement states that „no activity by both parties shall cross the line of effective control.“ [8] However, Clause 6 of the 1993 Agreement on Peacekeeping and Calm along the effective line of control in Indian border areas states that „both parties agree that references to the effective line of control of this agreement do not affect their respective positions on the issue of borders.“ [9] Since the two countries have not agreed on a common agreement on border harmonization, there is no clarity as to the validity of certain protocols. Signed in New Delhi on November 29, 1996, available in the Chinese AMF contract base in English, Chinese and Hindi. Copies and summaries of the agreement are also available in the UNITED Nations Peacemakers Database and the University of Edinburgh`s AP-X Peace Agreements database. According to the UN peacemakers` website, the agreement allows for „military disclosure when the parties conduct border exercises and downsizing in border areas. In addition, parties may, by invitation, observe and inspect troop movements in any other territory. In this agreement, the two sides agreed to reduce or limit their armed forces in mutually agreed geographical areas along the ZONE. It defines the main categories of armaments to be reduced or limited: „Battle tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, guns (including caps) of 75 mm or more caliber, mortars of 120 mm or more caliber, surface-to-surface missiles, surface-to-air missiles and any other conventionally agreed weapons system.“ (Article 3) „Each party must open fire, biodegrade, use hazardous chemicals, carry out explosive operations or hunt with rifles or explosives within two kilometres of the effective control line.“ (Article 6) In recent months, there has been a series of skirmishes and failures between Chinese and Indian forces along controversial and populated parts of the Sino-Indian border. The largest escalation occurred in mid-June in the Galwan Valley heights of the Himalayan region along the 2,100-mile Current Control Line (LAC).

The LAC is a loose demarcation line of the disputed area, divided into three sectors, and its western sector separates the Indian-controlled area of Eastern Ladakh from the China-managed Aksai Chin area (also claimed by India). The border is not the only contentious issue between the two countries. China disapproves of the reception of Tibetan refugees in India and their exiled leader, the Dalai Lama.

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