The conditions governing the organization of the armed forces of the United States of America in and around Japan are set by administrative arrangements between the two governments. The United States and Japan have concluded a trade agreement on market access for certain agricultural and industrial products, with plans to continue negotiations for an expanded free trade agreement. On October 17, 2019, the United States and Japan agreed on market access for certain agricultural and industrial products. Japan`s legislature approved the agreement on December 5, 2019. President 9974`s proclamation was issued on December 26, 2019, with the effective date of January 1, 2020. On 30 December 2019, the Communication of the Federal Register (84 FR 72187) on the implementation of the agreement was published. State Department, Advancing a Free and Open Indo-Pacific, July 30, 2018, www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2018/07/284829.htm; U.S. Trade and Development Agency, „USTDA Engages with Japan on Quality Infrastructure Development,“ October 4, 2018. Sharing costs and sharing costs is increasingly a source of tension within the Alliance.
During the 2016 presidential campaign, candidate Trump repeatedly claimed that Tokyo had not paid enough to reduce the U.S. cost of Japan`s security. In response, Japanese and U.S. officials defended the host nation`s support system, which has been negotiated and renegotiated over the years. Alliance advocates point to strategic benefits and cost reduction based on some of the most advanced capabilities of the U.S. military in Japan, including a forward aircraft carrier. The question of how much Japan spends, especially if Japanese government payments are taken to compensate basic housing communities and bear the cost of deploying U.S. troops to the region, remains a sensitive topic with few easily quantifiable answers.
Although candidate Donald Trump made critical statements about Japan during his election campaign, relations remained strong during several visits and meetings of heads of state and government. After Trump`s victory, Abe was the first foreign head of state to visit the president-elect and the second head of state to visit the White House after the U.S. inauguration. Abe and Trump showed a strong personal relationship and made a joint statement that recalled many of the previous principles of the bilateral alliance. However, Trump`s long-standing caution with respect to Japan`s trade practices and skepticism about the value of U.S. alliances abroad may have angered Tokyo. With his political position assured, Abe has tried to protect himself against Japan`s heavy dependence on the United States by defending multilateral trade agreements, stabilizing relations with China and addressing other partners such as Russia, India, Australia and the European Union. Some analysts have expressed concern about the difference in naivety in the approach to global issues between the Trump administration and Tokyo. At the international level, the two countries have traditionally collaborated on many multilateral issues, from nuclear non-proliferation to pandemics to climate change. Japan is a strong supporter of the United Nations as a forum for addressing international disputes and concerns. In the past, Japan and the United States have worked closely with the East Asia Summit and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Regional Forum.
The common sense of cooperation in the development of an international order based on rules and norms has long been a key element of bilateral relations. During his cabinet reshuffle in September 2019, Abe attacked emerging star Shinjiro Koizumi, son of former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi, as environment minister and minister of state for nuclear emergencies prevention.